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Thirteen Attempts

Concept The U.S. Navy Naval Research Laboratory and, later, NASA attempted to launch 11 “Vanguard Project” satellites into Earth orbit between December, 1957 – late 1958.  All but three failed.  The first to succeed – Vanguard I (which successfully gained low Earth orbit in March, 1958) was derisively labeled by Nikita Khrushchev “The Grapefruit Satellite”

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